Una Ida, que no quiere Vuelta!

Photo of Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa at Eric Vökel @ericvokel sipping Sangria, but thinking about Croquetas // Photo taken by Melissa Alvarez @melyyyyy_98

A short-story about a girl who falls in love with a country, its people, food, traditions, and culture.

written by Keysa Garcia

A Student of the Florida International University Honors College Spain Study Abroad Summer 2019 Program with Professor John William Bailly.




Prologue

A framed map, that hangs above my desk and marks all my adventures // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

Being born and raised into a family that courageously lives on the phrase, “You learn more abroad than a day at school” is what has inspired to travel the world, immersing myself in different cultures while living like a local. Over the past 20 years, I have experienced and gained so many life skills that will only enrich my future self and future career goals. As I am forever grateful for the opportunities I have been given to travel to new places and see and learn new things with my family, seeing Spain through the eyes of John W. Bailly is something one must experience to truly admire. 




Chapter 1: Where It All Started.

The Park of the Pleasant Retreat does not sound as beautiful as hearing a madrileño/madrileña roll their R’s as they mention El Parque del Buen Retiro. The park is filled with various monuments that not only add beauty but enrich the history of the park. 

Photo of La Fuente de los Galapagos located inside El Parque del Retiro @parque_del_retiro in Madrid, Spain // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

La Fuente de los Galapagos, the Galápagos Fountain is located to the north of the park by Salamanca, as it honors the first anniversary of the birth of Princess Isabella (who later becomes Isabella II), as commissioned by Ferdinand VII. The fountains origin is the Red de San Luis. In 1879, the fountain was relocated to the Glorieta de Nicaraguainside of El Parque del Buen Retiroadjacent to the big lake where one can rent a paddleboat and admire the beautiful greenery of the park. The fountain is composed of different animals, humans, and fictional characters such as fairies, dolphins, and turtles as the each contribute to the story of the fountain. One can spot the dolphins on the statue, as they have four children riding them to symbolize intelligence, prudence, and wisdom. The fountains fictional characters include three fairies, these fairies are associated with the good wishes towards the future queen, Isabella II. However, as a local or tourist one is automatically drawn to the water as it represents the source of all life, but one cannot ignore the only color that stands out on the statue, the green of the Galápagos turtle, as it represents longevity of the queen and her reign.  [•]

The Fountain of the Fallen Angel located inside El Parque del Retiro @parque_del_retiro in Madrid, Spain // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

Located 666 meters above the sea level, La Fuente del Ángel Caído, the fountain of the fallen angel sits in the midst of El Parque del Buen Retiro. The state was sculpted and created by Ricardo Bellver, yet his inspiration derived from Paradise Lostby John Milton where it received first prize in 1877 at La Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes. However, in 1878 the original plaster sculpture was destroyed, and recreated in Bronze to be apart of the Exposition Universelle, where masterpieces can only be made out of marble and bronze. This statue brings lots of attraction and pride to the park as it is one of the only public displays of the Devil in the world. [•] However, I believe that this public admiration to the devil has made its way to the Americas, as many individuals since the creation of this sculpture are not afraid to show their admiration to the devil himself. An example of this in the Americas include both the Church of Satan located in San Francisco, California and The Satanic Temple located throughout the United States, as it has 18 different active chapters. As it noted that both institutions believe and practice Satanism in different way, it is easily shown that both organizations do not have shame showing what they worship as those who commissioned, created, and displayed did not have fear when it came to La Fuente del Ángel Caído. [•]

El Palacio Cristal located inside El Parque del Retiro @parque_del_retiro in Madrid, Spain // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

El Parque del Buen Retiro, may be filled with beautiful historically rich statues and landscapes that make you fall in love with the place but there is nothing more astonishing than El Palacio de Cristal. Designed by Ricardo Velázquez Bosco, El Palacio de Cristalis one of the most intricate iron works in Madrid as it was inspired by Paxton’s Crystal Palace, yet was created for the 1887 Philippines Exhibition. [•]

Standing inside the crystal palace feels like a fairytale movie scene, having the warm Madrid sun shine through the glass and hit your skin is incomparable. It compares to nothing I have seen back at home, even comparing to my reaction to the Walt Disney Castle as a child. InsideEl Parque del Buen Retiro, one can find something to do… Whether it is working out, a light stroll or job, take a nap, row a boat, or just enjoy and embrace the greenery and historical attributes that offered within El Parque del Buen Retiro. 

Chapter 2: The Midst of It All.

The homey streets of Sevilla that remind me of my Cuban/Puerto Rican roots in Sevilla, Spain // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa
A street located in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

Walking through the streets of Sevilla reminded me of the times I have visited Cuba and Puerto Rico to not only visit family but to see where my parents grew up and established their childhood memories. However, the streets of Sevilla reminded me of the streets of El Viejo San Juan, the Old San Juan. My mom would walk up and down the street to get to and from school, it later became the same street she would walk to go to errands for my grandmother, and the streets that hold many secrets and memories… The same way the streets of Sevilla hold the secrets and memories of many locals and tourist. Sevilla first inhabitant have been established to be with the Tartessian culture. [•]

What is now present-day Sevilla, used to be known as Itálica, also known as the birth place of the Roman Emperors; this was founded in the early 200 BC. As a Vuelta,The nightlife in Barcelona was nothing like what I have experienced in Brickell or Wynwood. The music, the people, even the drinks taste different. The nights I spent out an about through the streets of Sant Marti and Barceloneta are the nights I will forever cherish.  I see the early architectural aspects influence the Americas, as the streets of Sevilla are so similar to the streets of El Viejo San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

When I began to miss home, and the Taste of America @tasteofamericae made all my worries go away located in Sevilla, Spain // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

As previously mentioned, walking the streets of Sevilla reminded me of the times I have visited Cuba and Puerto Rico to see where my parents grew up and established all of their childhood memories. However, Sevilla was able to give me the comfort of being home without being in Miami all thanks to a little store located on Calle Francos, 12. The Taste of America didn’t let me reminisce on the times I have visited Cuba and Puerto Rico, as there were moments I craved un plato de arroz blanco con huevo fritoor a portion of mofongo, but it gave me the access to my American comfort food. Paying 8 euros for a box of Kraft Mac and Cheese and 1,80 euros for a Twinkie sounds outrageous now that I am back in Miami, but when you are walking the streets of Sevilla and all you feel is a such an uplifting home vibe, you miss what you have back home as I was truly missing the taste of artificial cheese.

It was not only in Sevilla where I decided to seek for comfort food, it was from Day 1 till Day 22 of being on the program. Throughout the program, I would occasionally eat at fast food chains I have at home like Taco Bell and McDonalds, a Vuelta that I knew I would encounter but didn’t expect to engage in. In Miami, Taco Bell is only for the late-night munchies after a night of going out, in Sevilla it replaced my paellaand tapas for dinner. After being in awe on how different our tacos tasted, we also realized that even though we were eating at a popular American fast food chain, we were surrounded by locals who were singing along to Spanish street music. It wasn’t until I went to McDonald’s and saw both of my new Spanish life and my American life intertwine, on the menu of an American fast food chain… McCroquetes. 

Nonetheless, when looking back on each city I traveled to the only city where I found an American grocery mart was in Sevilla.




Chapter 3: One Last Dance.

Barcelona, the city that truly took my heart a second time… A city that truly taught me how to love, live in the moment, party till sunrises and not stay indoors playing cards, and helped me believe that the most amazing things in life are those that are unexpected. 

It was too late when we realized that playing cards in our apartment was absolutley no fun compared to partying till the sunrises along the Balearic Sea was a better option… // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

Pacha. The Coconut Club. Espit Chupitos. El Bombon. Opium. Club Catwalk.

The nightlife in Barcelona was nothing like what I have experienced in Brickell or Wynwood. The music, the people, even the drinks taste different. The nights I spent out an about through the streets of Sant Marti and Barceloneta are the nights I will forever cherish. 

When comparing the nightlife of Spain to one in Miami, you are able to spot many differences. To begin with, the time. In Miami, it doesn’t matter if you’re going to Miami Beach, Wynwood, Brickell, or Downtown… If you are partaking in activities of “my demographic” you will more likely commence you night between the hours of 10:30 pm to 11:30 pm. In Spain, all partying locations are closed at that time, as most of them open at 12:00 am even 1:00 am. Yet, if this were to be implemented in Miami, it will not only give us time to play cards in our room, but it will restrict us from going out as the crime rate in the United States is much higher than the crime rate in Spain. Following the time is the price tag. 

When it comes to partying and a bargain, Spain is you go to. After the converting your total cost spent (uber/taxi, entrance fee, and drinks) from Euros to United States Dollars, one can see a huge difference in the price tag. For example, the most I paid for an entrance fee in Spain was 20 euros, roughly 23 dollars and it included a drink. In the United States, an entrance fee will cost you 20 dollars, and drinks range from 15 to 25 dollars. Lastly, the spirit of those who go to the club is nothing like the ones in Miami, everyone is out and about living their life to the fullest without a worry in the world. In Miami, everyone even at the club, is stressed. 




Dear Spain, I cannot thank you enough for the unforgettable memories. I cannot wait till we meet again in December. I will also be ready for an ida but I never want to come de vuelta. Gracias por todo, from Dale to Vale

Atentamente,

Keysa Garcia




Sources

[•] La Fuente de los Galapagos

[•] La Fuente del Ángel Caído

[•] Satanism

[•] El Palacio Cristal

[•] Sevilla

Keysa Garcia: España as Text 2019

Photo of Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa at El Parque del Retiro @parque_del_retiro in Madrid, Spain

Keysa Garcia is a current student of the Florida International Univeristy Honors College and is majoring in both Biological Sciences and Chemistry with a minor in Mathematics. After attending Spain Study Abroad in the Summer, Keysa will work her way towards graduating in Spring 2020. She will begin by preparing for the MCAT and applying to Medical Schools, in order to fulfill her dreams of becoming a Pediatric Oncologist. Keysa is also passionate about traveling the world and emerging herself within different cultures, as she has been constantly reminded that you learn more a day abroad than a day at school.


Madrid as Text

“Notre Père.” by Keysa Garcia of @fiuhonors at in Madrid, Spain on June 8th, 2019

Painting by ??? // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

The faith and church order of the Roman Catholic Church is referred to as Catholicism, something that I have practiced and preached for as long as I can remember. As I have see pictures of my parents and god parents hovering over me as I was submerged into holy water in order to be regenerated, purified, and admitted into the Catholic Church is a reminder of what started it all. From there, many years passed as I still continued attending church and practicing my faith. I went to CCD classes, took my Communion pictures, attended Confirmation classes, and selected my Confirmation Sponsor.

However, through the midst of it all, life kept on moving and I began questioning my faith. My mother was diagnosed with Stage 3 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, both of my maternal grandparents passed, and my father would never be home to help my 9 year-old self take care of my mother as he had to pick up any side job possible in order to have food on the table. Every little obstacle I faced made me questioned my faith and god more and more. However, I started to live everyday by thinking that God places his toughest soldiers in his strongest battles… My battle was just tougher than other elementary/middle schoolers, as I began to become to the maternal figure for my father and three brothers.

I believe the picture I chose captured one of the toughest times in my life, as it represents my catholic faith glowing and being what I was seeking guidance from but the moving man (life) being a distraction. A year had passed, and my situations were getting worse, and I officially gave up on my faith.

A few years later, I was enrolled in St. Brendan Catholic High School located in the heart of Westchester, Florida. An institution that gave me the best four years of my life, and gave me the opportunity to grow back into my faith. I decided to continue and strengthen the French my mom taught me at home in school, as I didn’t want to be like everyone else and take Spanish. Madame Castillo, welcomed the entire class and taught us the Notre Père, hearing the Our Father in the most beautiful language in the world made me want to learn more about my faith and regain my connection with god in French.

Depuis ce jour, je remercie Dieu d’être allé dans une école catholique. Je remercie également Dieu pour la beauté de la langue française que ma mère m’a apprise depuis l’âge de trois ans et je remercie Madame Castillo de m’avoir fait renouer des liens avec Dieu.


Toledo as Text

“Lost & Found Box” by Keysa Garcia of @fiuhonors at El Grecos View in Toledo, Spain on June 12, 2019

Photo of Keysa Garcia @keysadilaa in Toledo, Spain // Photo taken by Carlos Rojas @carlos_gucci

On June 11th of 2019, my Professor, John W. Bailly advised the entire Spain Honors Study Abroad class to dress in our best “hiking gear” for class tomorrow in Toledo. Immediately after hearing this I began to ask myself what did I get myself into… However, I accepted the news. On the morning of June 12th, I was rushing my way through breakfast and putting on my new black Decathlon cropped leggings making sure I suited Professor Bailly’s hiking gear standards.

Prior to this trip and hike in Toledo, my life felt fuzzy. I found myself to be trapped inside a lost and found box, as if I were a sweater or a pair glasses that an elementary school child had left behind after a long day of learning how to add and subtract. Arriving to Toledo and walking over to Zocodover, I was thanking myself for signing up for OrangeTheroy and all those days where we had to put our treadmill incline at 10.0. As we finished our tour, and finished our lunch. I knew that the hike was going to start once Bailly released his man-bun and let all 17 of us (18 with Vicky) admire his lucious silver strands. We commenced our hike with our collapsible water bottles in one hand, and fear in the other. The hike continued and my biggest worry was what rock to put my foot on. At that moment I truly felt the fuzz from Miami fade away and I began to submerge myself in the views that El Greco painted which became complete clarity. I felt like I was able to leave the lost and found box and escape to what nature had to offer.

Puritans, like William Bradford believed that nature was a negative source of energy, as they believed that nature didn’t approve of there voyage. Puritans believed this as they faced danger throughout there voyage at sea. However, mountains are usually a place where one goes to clear their head, a space for contemplation. El Greco follows this tradition as he paints the same mountain ridge I was able to hike and admire.


Sevilla as Text

“Giralda” by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa of the @fiuhonors at La Cathedral de Sevilla on June 17, 2019

The Giralda Tower, a portion of La Cathedral de Sevilla // Photo Taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

TURRIS FORTISSIMA NOMEN DNI PROVERBS 18” is engraved at the top of the the Giralda tower at La Cathedral de Sevilla this means “The name of the lord is a strong tower” and it is a proverb in the Bible (proverb 18:10). I believe that this proverb adequately suits the tower, as the tower is founded and built upon great origin and history.

The Giralda tower was built in hopes of being a minaret, a multipurpose tower that is built adjacent to a mosque and generally used as a focal point for Adhan, Muslim call to prayer. However, in the year 1248 during the Reconquista, the purpose of the Giralda tower have changed as the tower now serves as a a bell tower to a Christian Cathedral, La Catedral de Sevilla. The tower successfully began its transformation to be a bell tower in the 16th century as a portion of the building was added to include more bells, as Hernán Ruíz was commissioned to not only add height to the building but to create a statue that would embodied the true Christian Faith of Sevilla.

The area constructed by Hernán Ruíz, contains Sevilla’s motto NO8OD, No me ha dejado, meaning “She has not abandoned me”. The motto is spelled with an 8 in the middle in order to represent madeja, hank, a coiled or wrapped piece of yarn.


Granada as Text

“Seven Heavens” by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa of the @fiuhonors at Alhambra @alhambra_oficial in Granada, Spain on June 18th, 2019

Lote Tree design on the walls of Alhambra @alhambra_oficial // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

When arriving to Alhambra, I decided to follow what Professor Bailly said and be “Islamic for a day” as I was able to follow the same path Muslims would walk, and have the opportunity to be surrounded by natural delicacies such as water and perfectly landscaped gardens. However, since I was placing myself in the shoes of being Islamic for the day, I wanted to know what it would be like to reach the seventh heaven.

It is stated that ancient philosophers believe that the seven heavens correlate to the seven different planets in our Solar System, Mercury, Venus, Moon, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The notion of Seven Heavens is rooted to ancient Mesopotamia religions, such as Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. However, some differences are noted amongst the three. For example, Islamic tradition believes that Heaven and Paradise are two different things; as paradise is the final resting place of the soul, unlike Catholics who’s ultimate goal and final resting place for your soul is heaven.

When walking through the palace and fortress I was emerging myself in its beauty, a true experience like no other. Eagerly admiring the intricate work on the walls and ceiling, made me want to experience the seventh heaven by stepping out of my catholic faith and learning and exploring more about different ancient Mesopotamian religions.


Barcelona as Text

”The Sacred Family” by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa of the @fiuhonors at La Sagrada Família @basilicasagradafamilia in Barcelona, Spain on June 21, 2019.

La Sagrada Família @basilicasagradafamilia // Photo taken by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa

Located in the heart of Barcelona, Spain, La Sagrada Família to me is one of the most astonishing architectural masterpieces within the European Union, and also one of Antoni Gaudí most intricate works.

The constructing of the basilica began in 1882, under the supervision and directory of Fransico de Paula del Villar, it wasn’t until 1883 that Antoni Gaudí abolished Fransico de Paula del Villar plans and began to construct the basilica. Gaudí was given this project at the age of 31, until his tragic death in 1926 at 74, Gaudí worked on the basilica with the purpose of tying all symbols and popular stories of the Christian faith into one.

When designing the basilica, it seemed to be that Gaudí was aware of the complexity and time it would take to finish it as the most intricate portion of La Sagrada Família is the front, also know as The Nativity Facade. The Nativity facade is the only portion of the basilica to be near completion before his death. The facade is filled with sculptures of biblical figures, animals, symbols, and the tree of life. However, the facade is composed of three different entries and four different bell towers. The entries are Hope, Charity, and Faith that are located from left to right and the four different bell towers are dedicated to four different Saints, Matthew, Jude, Barnabas, and Simon.

After admiring the overwhelming yet beautiful Nativity facade, you made your way inside the basilica. Inside La Sagrada Família, you can really capture and embrace Gaudí love for nature as all the column you are surrounded with are representations of trees. However, you inside the basilica your eyes are drawn to the stain glass windows as one side is dedicated to the Resurrection as the other side is decayed to the birth of Christ.

As it is my third time visiting the Sagrada Família, I still find myself more and more amazed with the overwhelming architecture and spiritual message. I find myself sitting outside of La Sagrada Família for 2+ hours just admiring section by section, as Gaudí architectural work is breathtaking. Although the basilica remains unfinished, there is a hope that tourist and locals would be able to admire the finished basilica in 2026.


Sitges as Text

“Compare & Contrast” by Keysa Garcia @keysadillaa of the @fiuhonors at Palau de Maricel in Sitges, Spain on June 27, 2019

Being an individual who was born and raised into a strong Cuban family, I have had the honor of seeing how American and Spanish culture mix with one another. Living in the city of Miami, has allowed me to see how food,


XC as Text

Medical Advancements & Healthcare System

by Keysa Garcia

Overview

Picture [11].

Different technological advancements are being brought to countries with an increasingly high number of individuals who can’t get the correct treatments due to the lack of advancement in their countries healthcare systems.

Top Tier

When looking at the world and it is entirety, our society tends to label countries. For example, Chinese people are labeled as people who eat dogs or that all Mexican foods are spicy. However, when one thinks of Spain they think of lazy people who take 3 hour siestas in the middle of the day. What people don’t know about Spain is that it is amongst the top five researching and developing countries within the medical technology world [1].

Not only is Spain amongst the top five countries, but it flourishes in other medical aspects besides research and development. For example, agrobiotechnology, the application of biotechnology on to agriculture is ranked third in the world. Another example includes, Spain being the fifth largest exporter of health technology and Spain ranking third in reproductive technology.

Reproductive Technology

As previously mentioned, Spain is very advanced in reproduction technology. One of the largest and most well-known fertility centers, Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (IVI). The Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad is one of the first fertility groups to open up in Europe and all over the world. The institution was founded in 1990, and 65 clinics in 11 different countries; with 35 of the clinics in Spain and 19 in the United States [8].

What most Americans dream of is having a family, and sometimes this isn’t possible. As many American females wish to conceive naturally, many have to turn into in vitro fertilization. In result to this many American fertilization companies rely on any advancements or new techniques that Spain produces. An example of this includes embryo transfers. Medical professionals in the United States transfer embryos by playing a small catheter and releasing the embryo [9]. However, researchers and developers at the IVI have noted higher success rates if this process is down with a guided ultrasound [10]. Findings like these, have lead to merging of Spanish fertilization companies with American Fertilization companies [3].

The embryo transfer process [9].

Pulmonology

When reflecting on the aspects within the Americas influenced by Spain, one can look into the what is taught to students at the high school, collegiate, and graduate level. Michael Servetus (villanueva de Sigena, Aragón, Spain, 29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553) was one the first Europeans to describe the functions of the pulmonary circulation [4]. Michael Servetus explains the functions of pulmonary circulation by describing the color of the blood, and the size and location of different ventricles. The functions Michael talks about are all common teachings a student learns in an American classroom setting.

Approximately 35% of deaths that occur in United States are respiratory related, and 75% (a total of 26%) of that is caused by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) [6]. However, when you compare COPD death rates the 26% of deaths in the United States towers over the 6.9% of deaths in Spain [7].

Spanish-Arabic Medicine

At the starting point of the 7th century till the end of 8th century, an Arabian culture started too spread from the Straits of Gibraltar to Egypt, and leading to the Spain. As the culture migrated through the country, so did the writings of many medical professionals. Many of these writings, were works done by Rhazes.

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Rhazes, was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher. Besides all of these attributes Rhazes is an important figure in the history of medicine [13]. Rhazes was a personal physician while living in Baghdad but his literary works on the differences between measles and smallpox’s traveled through Europe and made its way to medical schools in Cordova, Sevilla, and Toledo. [12]

In addition to Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, a.k.a Rhazes… We are introduced to an Arabic doctor, who practiced medicine in Cordoba. Abul Kasim, migrated to Spain and was the first to be interested dentistry. Abul is also the first too manifest an illustrated literary piece about surgery, within this text he illustrates about many topics including removal of teeth and plaque [14]. These two concepts are top reasons why individuals in today’s society go to the dentist.

Surgery

The Iberian Peninsula was visited by many foreigners who all shared one common trait, that trait was a vast knowledge within the medical and surgical field. The surgical aspects one gets to learn about today or gets to see on Tv stemmed from the megalithic era. WIthin the megalithic era, the first “surgical” procedure was performed, the procedure is what we know as trepanation, the procedure of making a hole in an individual’s skull. Until the Renaissance, Spain did not flourish within the medical and surgical field. As time went by, improvements and advancements were made. However, most advancements were noted by medical breakthroughs, such as anesthesia, and many technological breakthroughs in the 19th century. [15]

However, since the 19th century Spain has not stopped. Spain is currently envied by many countries by their surgical transplant rates. It is noted in the video description, that 27 organs are donated by every million people! This is currently (2015, when the video was posted), twice as much as the Americas. [16] However, I believe that in North America this rate is not as high as Spain’s due to the eating habits and lifestyle Americans, most organs are not eligible for transplants.

Transplant Surgery in Spain envied by others. [16]

Healthcare System

When looking more in depth about the Healthcare System of Spain, various sources mentioned how Spain started implementing electronic health records (EMR) during the past decade. However, as a current healthcare assistant and healthcare system trainer at the University of Miami, I am always reminded that our system is “faulty” because it’s only 3 years old. My provider states that for every patient within our system there should be four sets of eyes, as he also mentions on he misses writing a patient’s prescription on a tiny piece of paper.

Nonetheless, Spain has introduced their electronic health records (EMR) within two decades. According to MIT technology review, by the year 2010 more than 95% of Primary Care Physicians were using the EMR and also placing more than 250 million prescriptions. [5]

Videos

Antonia Goggans testimonial about dealing with the Spanish healthcare and comparing it to the United States [2].

Source

[1] Article Post – Medical Research and Development in Spain

[2] Youtube Video – Antonia Goggans Testimonial

[3] Article Post – Merging of Spanish and American Fertilization companies

[4] Article Post – History on Michael Servetus

[5] Article Post – Emergency Medical Records Statistics

[6] Research Article – COPD Background and Statistics

[7] Article Post – COPD Spain Death Rates

[8] Webpage – IVI Locations and Facts

[9] Youtube Video – Visual representation of Embryo Transfer

[10] Article Post – Ultrasound increases Embryo Transfer success rate

[11] Picture – Clipart

[12] Article Post – A History of Surgery

[13] Webpage Info – Wikipedia

[14] Webpage – History of Medicine

[15] Article Post – History of Surgery

[16] Youtube Video – Transplant Surgery in Spain