Vuelta: In the Midst of the Greenery and Sandy Beaches by Daniella Stalingovskis España 2019

Introduction:

Throughout my life in the United States, it was always enforced and believed that our country was a melting pot of different cultures and ethnicities congregating to reach the same goal of freedom and democracy. However, after I traveled to Spain for a month, I realized that cultures are never pure, or factors of it solely belong to one group; cultures pick and choose from other cultures and can expand or improve on other’s values or discoveries. In other words, for cultures to thrive, they need to interact with other differing cultures to flourish. Spain represents as a product of dynamic and multicultural influences through numerous ways whether it be through art, architecture, or even landscaping. This is due to Spain’s history of being part of the Roman Empire, then the Visigoths, then being conquered by Islamic Moors, and then the Christians ruling in 1492. My Vuelta aspect for this project will pertain to multiculturalism but in the eyes of nature, specifically parks, gardens, beaches, and some architectural buildings. Whether it be for religious purposes or for leisure, nature has been a central theme and core of Spain’s landmarks where they maintain and help flourish to give the people open spaces for relaxation and reflection.

Madrid

Buen Retiro Park:

When entering in El Retiro and seeing all the sculptures, gardens, and monuments, I was reminded of my time when I visited Central Park in New York. A chunk of greenery surrounded in a busy and bustling city with both tourists and locals walking in the park or having a picnic to enjoy the environment and relax. Its atmosphere speaks of grandeur when looking at its luxurious rose gardens flourished with varying species, the Fountain of the Fallen Angel which ironically is the only public monument depicting the devil, the crystal palace that showcases modern art pieces, and an artificial pond with another monument showcasing King Alfonso XII. Originally, the park was not open to the public but belonged to the royalty until 1868. It was also mostly directed by an Italian landscape designer named Cosmio Lotti who also worked on fountains and water systems in the Boboli Gardens. He also was responsible for developing the artificial pond as well. The Roseleda or rose garden, was a relatively more recent addition to the park in 1915 by a gardener named Cecilio Rodríguez where he took inspiration from different European gardens but specifically the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. The Palacio de Cristal was built in 1887 to originally showcase exotic flowers and currently houses contemporary art exhibitions. What is also interesting is how in front of the Palacio de Cristal, series of trees are growing from the artificial pond called Taxodium Distichum which comes from southeastern United States. The park also flaunts having one of the oldest trees in Madrid which is named Taxodium mucronatum which is also known as the Montezuma bald cypress which is from Mexico and is apparently over 400 years old. This park exemplifies how multiculturalism can be seen through simple areas such as public parks where French, Italian, and American influences are at hand.

La Latina:

In the La Latina barrio, I went to visit the Basilica of San Francisco El Grande, which has the largest dome in Spain and the third largest in Christianity. The basilica is also flourished by many decorative paintings from famous artists such as Francisco de Goya. One site that I happened to stumble upon was a modest garden right next to the basilica and I immediately wanted to check out the flora and main statue that centralizes the park. The garden is known as Dalieda de San Francisco because it is known for being a botanical garden which houses the dahlia flowers. Dahlias are unique because they are originated from Mexico and were used as crops and as a source of water by Aztecs because of their tubular stems. They were discovered by the Spaniards during their conquest in the Americas in 1525, but detailed descriptions of the flower were found in 1570 by Francisco Hernández who was a physician to King Philip II. An employee of the Royal Gardens of Madrid named Antonio Jose Cavarilles had received dahlias in 1789 by a director of the Botanical Garden in Mexico City and he developed three different forms of the dahlia which were the Dahlia rosea, pinnata, and coccinea as well as named the flower after a Swedish botanist named Andreas Dahl. In the past, this garden used to be part of an old Arab defense wall and later as a convent of San Francisco in the 13th century. The garden was established in 2007 to house various species of the flower but over time, it has been difficult to sustain the flowers in Madrid’s dry climate and now they vary different assortments of flowers such as roses and some dahlias. Overall, it is intriguing how a small park such as this one has origins from Islamic and Christian rule and resulted with a park dedicated to flowers that came from across the seas from Mexico.

Sevilla

Real Alcázar:

Out of all the cities I went to with our class, Sevilla truly embodies more of the Mudéjar style in its public areas than Madrid or Barcelona. One of the prime examples of merging cultures is the Real Alcázar and its numerous gardens that has features in almost every western European country. The origins of the palace used to be a fortification from Roman era, then the Visigoths, then the Moors in A.D 711 and then the Christian monarchy in 1248. In 1364, Pedro I of Castile built the palace and appreciated the Mudéjar style and employed Jewish and Moorish workers to build it with Christian symbolisms. The result of this was a mix of Islamic and Christian designs and symbols meshed together into this entire building such as the front façade of the building where the design is Islamic, but the symbol is the Christian cross. Another multicultural factor is the Real Alcazar’s numerous gardens which has various legends and different inspirations from different cultures. For instance, there is the English garden which is obviously inspired from the British Isles and there is the Gallery of the Grotesque which was an old Islamic wall that was redesigned by an Italian named Vermondo Resta and it is filled with frescos painted by Diego de Esquivel and features the Greek god called Mercury in the center of the fountain sculpted by Bartolomé Morel in 1576. Vermondo Resta was mainly responsible for adding Italian features including mannerist and baroque styles within the gardens. There is also the Garden of Poets which was created in 1956 and combines features of gardening from the Islamic, Renaissance and Romantic styles and was designed by Javier Winthuysen who was inspired by the Villandry garden in France. The park also flaunts having about 187 different plant and tree species throughout its gardens of which 48 of them are from the Americas such as pecan trees, bald cypresses, marigolds, poinsettias, and magnolias. Sevilla was the portal of trade and commerce to the Americas and the Real Alcázar was the central hub of interacting with different cultures, making it a superior nation at its peak during the colonization period.

Parque de Maria Luisa:

In Parque de Maria Luisa, the Mudéjar style appears once again and is embraced fully in Plaza de España, Plaza de América, and many other various gardens that make up the entire park. It was originally given to the city in 1893 by duchess Maria Louisa. In 1909, Spain planned on launching a Hispanic-American exhibition for the World’s Fair and choose a well-known French engineer and gardener named Jean-Claude Nicolás Forestier. In Plaza de España, the architecture is heavily inspired based on Mudéjar style with its red brick designs, tileworks showcasing various cities in Spain, and decorative arches that span throughout the plaza. Inside the gardens, I witnessed varying plants and trees that originated from the Americas to this landscape such as marigolds, liana trees from South America, and more bald cypresses from the southeastern United States. Another site that evoked different styles from the Renaissance, Gothic, and Mudéjar style was the Plaza de América. The plaza was directed and designed by Aníbal González Álvarez-Ossorio and completed in 1916 and he showcased these different styles by building the Palace of Fine Arts in the Renaissance style, the Royal Pavilion in Gothic style, and the Mudéjar Pavilion. Currently, the Mudéjar Pavilion is now established as a museum of Popular Arts and Customs, where I got to see some antique jewelry, pottery, and tileworks from different eras. They also dedicate many forums and information regarding the process of tileworks and different methods as to how they accomplished different styles with tiles. It is intriguing to witness and learn how this park had evolved and merges different styles of architecture as well as embrace the Islamic past of Spain through the lens of Mudéjar styles.

Granada

Alhambra:

When arriving inside the entrance of Alhambra, I was mesmerized by all the flora assortments in the garden square, the geometric patterns in the ceilings of the rooms that signify the divinity and admiration for God, and the history of the Moorish and Nasrid rule to the fall of Granada and Christian rule in 1492. So rich in beauty and history in this one area that I could not help but wonder why this palace was abandoned and how did it become neglected and then revived into one of the world’s greatest tourist sites. Back in the 18th century, it was in an abandoned state filled with squatters and vagabonds occupying the area. It was until an American writer named Washington Irving who saw the magic and beauty that Alhambra offered and wrote one of his most famous novels, Tales of the Alhambra. He even occupied in a room himself in the palace and wrote his stories based on folklore and tales about the palace. His novel was successful, and Irving had resurrected the spirit and life of the Alhambra and he was also assigned as an U.S. minister to Spain. He played a big role into giving the Alhambra its deserved recognition and appreciation where people all around the world come to visit this grandeur palace. The Alhambra and Irving’s stories had also inspired some people back in the Americas. One American man named Franklin Webster Smith developed his winter home in St. Augustine called the Villa Zorayda which was named after one of the characters in Irving’s Tales of the Alhambra. The structure of the interior and the horseshoe arches were directly inspired from the palace as well. It is intriguing how an American writer can revive such a historically rich place through his stories and bring tourism in massive waves afterwards.

One of the areas in the Alhambra that struck me was the Placio de Generalife which translates to “Architect’s Garden” in Arabic. It would be the area of contemplation and relaxation for the leaders of the Nasrid rule from their political and diplomatic responsibilities. I was amazed by the architecture, the flower assortments, and the fountains but it did not appear to be authentically Islamic due to the exuberant amount of greenery and the rising fountains. This was because it was rearranged by an Italian director named Francisco Prieto-Morino from 1931 to 1951 which gave the gardens more Italian influences and had a lack of knowledge of Moorish gardening. Some of the features that remain true to the Nasrid design was the long and wide pool in the Court of Myrtles and the compactness of the gardens in general. Although it does not remain entirely true to its Islamic past, like culture, many things go through changes and it is difficult to attempt to recreate something from the far past, but I still appreciate visiting the grand palace and its gardens even if it was altered or changed.

Barcelona

Barceloneta and La Vila Olímpica:

What has expensive food and drinks, appeals to a young, energetic, and lively demographic, and showcases a large promenade of shops alongside to its sandy beaches? If you guessed Miami, then you are right but in this case, I’m referring to Barceloneta. This tourist beach city is a perfect reflection as to how Miami functions as a tourist city, especially in South Beach and in Hollywood Beach. However, Barceloneta was not always a popular tourist site just like Miami was not always one either. It used to be filled with fisherman, sailors, and many evicted people from a neighborhood called Ribera in the 18th century because King Philip V wanted to establish the Ciutadella. Over time, the population increased and made a booming city filled with expensive boats, nightlife, restaurants, bars, and shops spanning throughout Barceloneta, Port Vell, and La Vila Olímpica. The beach resort area has a more modern style to it, especially La Vila Olímpica since it was landscaped specifically for hosting the 1992 Olympics. In a way, these relatively modern landscapes alongside with the beaches distinguishes Barcelona and Catalonia in general from Spain’s other cities and their designs. When I went to the barrio for the annual Nit de Foc celebration where dancing with the devil is encouraged and fireworks and sparklers are aflame and singed clothes and hair are common. The large hoards of people by the beach and lighting up fireworks by the ocean takes me back to Miami during the 4th of July where different people from varying backgrounds congregate together and enjoy the show of lights illuminating the sky. It is welcoming to visit a district from Barcelona that feels like home despite being thousands of miles away.

Conclusion:

Overall, it is evident to see that Spain has acquired its gardening and landscape uses and designs based on inspirations of French, Italian, and Islamic styles. Spain crafted its own identity based on its multicultural past and exposed those merges in cultural aesthetics and designs by showcasing its gardens and landscapes and flourishing it with variety of plant and tree species that span all over the world including the Americas. This trip has made me reconsider about how fluid culture can be and how it is always evolving over time. It is apparent that cultures do thrive when interacting with other varying ones and appreciate different aspects or values that the culture offers. It is important to accept change and to stray away from isolation and not be fearful of the unknown but rather delve deeper to understand it.  

Works Cited:

Madrid:

  1. “Buen Retiro Park – Madrid Tourist Attractions.” Madrid Sightseeing – Madrid Tourist Attractions, www.madridtourist.info/buen_retiro_park.html.
  2. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. “Site of the Retiro and the Prado in Madrid.” Site of the Retiro and the Prado in Madrid – UNESCO World Heritage Centre, UNESCO, 27 Jan. 2015, whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5977/.
  3. “History of the Dahlia.” Sarah Raven, Sarah Raven, 1 Apr. 2019, www.sarahraven.com/articles/history-of-the-dahlia.htm.
  4. “History of the Dahlia.” History of the Dahlia, National Dahlia Society, 2011, www.dahlia-nds.co.uk/about_dahlias/Dahlia_History.htm.
  5. “La Dalieda De San Francisco.” Rincones De Madrid, 16 Sept. 2016, http://www.rinconesdemadrid.com/la-dalieda-de-san-francisco/.
  6. Manuel, Jos. “Árboles De Madrid. Ahuehuete Del Retiro.” FotoMadrid, www.fotomadrid.com/verArticulo/208.
  7. “Rosaleda Del Retiro, Un Rincón Apacible En El Centro.” Mirador Madrid, 17 May 2019, www.miradormadrid.com/rosaleda-del-retiro/.
  8. Sardá, Juan. “El Coqueto Jardín De La Dalieda De San Francisco El Grande.” La Vanguardia, La Vanguardia Ediciones, 9 June 2018, http://www.lavanguardia.com/local/madrid/20180609/444214818524/madrid-secreto-jardin-dalieda-san-francisco-grande.html.

Sevilla:

  1. “Galería De Grutesco.” Real Alcázar De Sevilla, www.alcazar.nomadgarden.org/gardener/real-alcazar-de-sevilla/spaces/galeria-de-grutesco/.
  2. “Historia Del Parque De María Luisa.” Ayuntamiento De Sevilla, www.sevilla.org/servicios/medio-ambiente-parques-jardines/parques/parques-y-jardines-historicos/parque-de-maria-luisa/historia.
  3. “Jardín De Los Poetas.” Real Alcázar De Sevilla, www.alcazar.nomadgarden.org/gardener/real-alcazar-de-sevilla/spaces/jardin-de-los-poetas/.
  4. “Jardín Del Estanque De Mercurio.” Real Alcázar De Sevilla, www.alcazar.nomadgarden.org/gardener/real-alcazar-de-sevilla/spaces/jardin-del-estanque-de-mercurio/.
  5. “Plaza De América.” Ayuntamiento De Sevilla, www.sevilla.org/servicios/medio-ambiente-parques-jardines/parques/parques-y-jardines-historicos/parque-de-maria-luisa/plaza-de-america.
  6.  “Real Alcázar Di Siviglia: Informazioni Utili e Come Arrivare.” Andalusia, www.andalusiaspagna.com/siviglia/cosa-vedere-siviglia/alcazar/.
  7. “Real Alcázar De Sevilla: Species.” Real Alcázar De Sevilla, www.alcazar.nomadgarden.org/gardener/real-alcazar-de-sevilla/species/?filter=origin.
  8. “The Royal Alcazar of Seville.” Dosde, www.dosde.com/discover/en/the-royal-alcazar-of-seville/.

Granada:

  1. “Alhambra.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 12 Mar. 2018, www.history.com/topics/landmarks/alhambra.
  2. Harney, Marion. Gardens & Landscapes in Historic Building Conservation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
  3. Murphy, Cullen. “Tales of the Alhambra.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 1 Sept. 2001, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2001/09/tales-of-the-alhambra/302290/.
  4. Sheldon, George William, and Arnold Lewis. American Country Houses of the Gilded Age. Dover Publications, 1982.

Barcelona:

  1. “La Barceloneta.” Barcelona by CIVITATIS, Civitatis Tours SL, www.introducingbarcelona.com/la-barceloneta.
  2. “Port Olímpic Barcelona.” Barcelona by CIVITATIS, Civitatis Tours SL, www.introducingbarcelona.com/port-olimpic.
  3. “Viaggio Alla Scoperta Di Barceloneta, Ovvero Il Quartiere Più Puro e Autentico Di Barcellona.” ELLE, ELLE, 19 Mar. 2018, www.elle.com/it/lifestyle/news/g1418244/barceloneta-cosa-vedere/.

Daniella Stalingovskis: España as Text 2019

Daniella Stalingovskis is a junior in FIU Honors College pursuing a bachelor’s degree in Business Analytics with a minor in Economics. Her hobbies include mathematics, statistics, and learning about the fine arts and history . She attended the Honors Spain program in the summer of 2019. Here are her as texts in Spain:

Madrid as Text:

Postcards of various Las Castas paintings for sale 06/07/19

“Wait a Minute Mr. Postman” by Daniella Stalingovskis of FIU at Museo de Americas, Madrid

When exploring and immersing myself about the history of the Americas in the Museo de Americas, I noticed how many controversial paintings in the museum were not fully explained to their visitors. It makes it seem that it is Spain’s intention to hide the oppression they caused under the rug and to still glorify their perspective of the golden age period in Spain when they conquered the Americas while ignoring the other side of the story of the indigenous people and the African slaves that were forcibly abused during Spain’s reign. The most noticeable example were the Las Castas paintings on display where no in-depth explanation as to what these paintings are and why they were created in the first place. It was not for aesthetics, but it served as a public reminder of one’s place in society based on one’s lineage. These paintings served as a reinforcement of Spain’s paranoia of a pure European and Christian bloodline and if one does not fully fit the criteria, one would not be able to live a life with economic or financial freedom. After visiting the museum, I stumbled across the souvenir shop and saw a rack of postcards with those same images. The same paintings that reinforced the oppressive caste system based on one’s bloodline that predetermines one’s entire lifestyle. It is problematic, ignorant, exploitative, and offensive to those who suffered during those times and are used for a measly half a euro for opportunistic gain for profit.

Segovia as Text:

Wooden Sculpture of Jesus Christ by Gregorio Fernandez between 1631-1636 at the Cathedral of Segovia 06/10/19

“The Beauty of Faith” by Daniella Stalingovskis of FIU at the Cathedral of Segovia

I have always considered myself as an agnostic person when it comes to the topic of religion. However, when visiting the Cathedral of Segovia, the most intricate and complex wooden sculpture simply entranced me. This version was created by Gregorio Fernández during 1631-1636 and he made only 14 versions that were created of the same design. The amount of effort and time spent to develop a realistic wooden sculpture of Jesus Christ and his crucifixion is phenomenal considering the period it was created in. Fernández used cork to create the wounds on the body, polychrome wood for the body and fabrics, and a bull’s horn and animal bones for the fingernails, toenails, and the teeth. Despite my agnostic background, I deeply appreciate the religious artworks and devotions that the sculptors and artists had as motivation to create beautiful and realistic pieces such as this. I was amazed how the fabrics were not real but wooden as well as the pillow that Jesus Christ is resting his head on. Witnessing pieces such as this makes me wonder about the creativity and dedication within people is obtainable no matter what era or technology is available. We have so many resources and technology for woodworking and creating sculptures now than we did back in the 17th century but this sculpture looks so recent and well crafted with the tools Fernández had back then. Overall, it is a beautiful and intricate sculpture that uses creative methods available at the time to have a realistic result such as this sculpture of Jesus Christ.

Sevilla as Text:

Christopher Columbus Monument at Jardin de Murillo, Sevilla 06/17/19

“Ship Wrecked” by Daniella Stalingovskis of FIU at the Christopher Columbus Monument in Jardin de Murillo, Sevilla

To admire or condemn this monument? That is the question that sparks controversy within Spain and its problematic past with the Americas. As the class walked towards the towering monument in the Jardin de Murillo garden, I noticed how it displays on one side with Queen Isabella’s name on the ship with a portrait of Christopher Columbus at the bottom and the other side pertains King Ferdinand’s name with the Spain’s royal emblem below. The monument showcases the nationalistic pride and honor the Spanish people may have for the trio since it gave Spain the upper hand in power and wealth for many years. However, it hides the atrocities and the negative factors that occurred during Spain’s reign, especially to the indigenous people and African slaves that were manipulated and forced into slavery and used religion as an excuse to control them.

Without a doubt, the discovery of the New World greatly impacted the world in general, especially to those who share a Hispanic background where their identity is based from the Spanish rulers conquering those countries. Most countries in South America share the same language and most consider themselves Catholic which is the dominating religion in Spain since 1492. Those born from a Hispanic or Latino background are a long-term result of those same conquests. However, a major downside of this discovery that led to Spain’s gain in power resulted in an unfortunate price in abusing and exploiting the indigenous people and bringing African slaves to the New World to forcefully work.

Over time, moral standards and revisionism in history have increased since then and people greatly criticize the expedition and its outcome. In the United States, there is a strong dissenting opinion about considering Columbus Day to be celebrated. In high school, most of my history teachers condemned the holiday and expedition itself and on talk shows such as John Oliver’s show called Last Week Tonight where they have a segment called How Is This Still a Thing? In other South American countries, they changed the holiday’s meaning into their own perspective and ideals. For instance, in Venezuela and Nicaragua, they changed the holiday into another name called Día de la Resistencia Indígena since they want to commemorate the indigenous people who were attacked and suffered from the Spanish rule. In Ecuador, they renamed the holiday to Día de la Interculturalidad y la Plurinacionalidad to establish and spread a positive dialogue between differing cultures and to rejoice other nationalities and the indigenous people as well.

So, the question still stands; Should the monument still be maintained, condemned, or even destroyed? Personally, I think it should stay but not for reasons of celebration, but as a reminder of Spain’s pivotal point of history and the consequences of that expedition. I also think it would be beneficial to also add another monument alongside to the Christopher Columbus monument to commemorate the indigenous people and African slaves that forcefully endured many hardships during the period of Spain’s reign. Although I am not from South America nor do I come from a Hispanic background, I have lived in Miami for my whole life and have been influenced through the community through school, relationships, and friendships. The city that makes this place so special with the diversity of Hispanics from varying South American countries would not be the same if it were not for those conquests. It is a conflicting argument but the most vital lesson is to understand the full story of the history where one’s identity stems from since ignoring the flaws and poor actions of these nations and historic figures will sprout with nothing but ignorance.

Source: Villagrana, Blanca. “What Does Columbus Day Mean for Hispanics?” Center for Hispanic Marketing Communication, 9 Oct. 2014, hmc.comm.fsu.edu/blog/what-does-columbus-day-mean-for-hispanics/.

Granada as Text:

Various places in Alhambra, Granada 06/18/19

“Transcending to Paradise” by Daniella Stalingovskis of FIU at Alhambra, Granada

As the class and I strolled into the arched entrances to the grand palace of Alhambra, I felt as if I transcended into a realm of a blissful paradise with other fellow tourists joining us on our journey. I heard the birds chirping and singing, the gardens filled with lush and colorful assortments of flowers and different species, the perfect symmetry of the bushes and hedges, and the pools of water perfectly reflecting the azure sky. Emerging into Alhambra made me realize how much I do not know about the beauty and devotion of the Islamic faith and the simplistic but intricate reasons towards their symbolisms throughout the palace.

In the Islamic faith, it is forbidden to illustrate Allah through drawings or sculptures. Therefore, they display their devotion by using shapes as symbols and poetry to write on the walls. The square means the Earth and mankind, and tilting it repeatedly creates a star which represents the heavens. If one tilts the square very meticulously, it will result with a circle, which represents the divinity of God. That is why the rooms have a square in the bottom and rises as a dome at the top. One dome after another, it became more complex and intricate with the geometric patterns and shapes since the more complicated it is, the more divine it is to God. Something that appears so simple but pertains such a passionate and complex demonstration of divinity truly displays pure dedication and devotion to Allah.

Another aspect of Alhambra that intrigued me was the assortment of the flowers and greenery surrounding the fortress and palace. The reason why there are numerous gardens throughout the palace is because gardens are supposed to represent paradise on Earth as well as enforce abundance. There were also many low fountains and ponds that reflects the sky to showcase the heavens and for contemplation of Allah and the divine. The gardens truly did showcase paradise with many forms of live flourishing within the environment and provides a much deeper meaning than the sake of aesthetics.

Ever since the attacks of 9/11 in the United States and the rise of radical Islamic groups such as ISIS or Al-Qaeda, many Muslims have been stereotyped as a terrorist themselves and their religion has been shamed as one of the most uncivil and war-mongering religion compared to others. This speaks volumes of hypocrisy since the same people who criticize Islamism also tend to shrug off the violent attacks made from radical Christians such as the Holy Wars and the Crusades. Usually, it is not the religion that is evil, but it is the people who are and try to corrupt the image of the values of that faith. From the Alhambra, I have seen many serene and peaceful landscapes that Islamic art has to offer to feel connected to Allah and to contemplate about divinity, not committing war crimes and genocide. I hope that one day society will see past a person’s race, religion, sexuality, or ethnicity and just see them as the person they are through their actions and what they have to offer.

Barcelona as Text:

Parc Güell, La Sagrada Familia, and Tibidabo 06/21/19, 06/26/19

Modernisme: A Cultural Declaration” by Daniella Stalingovskis of FIU at Barcelona, Spain

Over this week, I have seen all the main sites in Barcelona where tourists snap their pictures for their perfect Instagram shot. Parc Güell? Seen it. La Sagrada Familia? Done that. In addition to seeing these iconic sites, I noticed many similarities pertaining to the architecture and artworks displayed from the Modernisme movement during the late 19th and early 20th century in Barcelona. Rather than being an art movement for just aesthetics such as the Art Nouveau movement in Europe, the Modernisme movement paved the way to help revitalize and reestablish Catalan culture and identity. The identifying features from this movement includes many motifs from nature such as trees, flowers, and animals. The two main protagonists that are mostly well known for creating works in this style are Antoni Gaudí and Lluis Domènech i Montaner where they both serve some similarities and differences with their stylistic choices.

One of Montaner’s works that we saw was the Palau de la Música Catalana where columns were flourished with floral motifs and about 2,700 roses were scattered across the concert hall. But, the main sight to be seen was the enormous inverted dome in the ceiling of the concert hall, representing as the sun. It made me feel as if I entered into a garden of music with all the beautiful and unique floral mosaics and the sun dome blooming and illuminating the concert hall with natural light. Inspired by both Gothic and Moorish styles, Montaner merged his own art style and was the one of the forerunners of displaying these types of Modernisme architecture. He was also responsible for publishing an article for a magazine where he proclaimed theories about having Catalan architecture and it inevitably came true when he built a café for the World’s Fair in 1888.  

Antoni Gaudí was more heavily inspired by both his conservative religious values and appreciating nature as he believed that nature is God’s creation on Earth. In his ongoing architectural masterpiece called La Sagrada Familia, he is heavily inspired by nature since the columns are arched in a unique way since Gaudí was inspired by the shape and structure of trees. He also applied more Gothic-like art both inside and outside the cathedral as well as implementing Moorish techniques of his artworks such as ironworks and mosaic artworks seen more in Parc Güell and in Palau Güell.

Overall, seeing how these two famous architects applied different art styles to create their own sense of identity and message made me rethink how I see culture as a whole. Culture is never pure in its own way; it is fluid and for it to flourish, it must learn and observe other cultures and expand or use it in their own way to make themselves distinct. The Catalan culture had artists and architects that successfully observed techniques and styles from other cultures and developed their own sense of identity in the process.

Source:

“Modernisme – Barcelona Formative Period of Art.” Barcelona.de – Catalan Art Nouveau from 1878 to around 1910, Barcelona.de Tourist Info, www.barcelona.de/en/barcelona-modernisme-art-nouveau.html.

Sitges as Text:

Oil Painting at Charles Deering’s and Miquel Utrillo’s Maricel, Sitges 06/27/19

“Slow and Steady Wins the Race” by Daniella Stalingovskis of FIU at Sitges Spain

When entering Charles Deering’s house and into his garage for his vehicles at the time, the class and I were bombarded with various oil paintings throughout the room. The room was called The Triumph of the Allies and it was completed as paintings in 1916 where they symbolized World War I. Since they were paintings, Charles Deering had taken them with him when he left Sitges to the Americas. Afterwards, the paintings were bought by Dr. Jesús Pérez-Rosales and he brought the paintings back into Maricel in 1970. The name of the specific painting shown above is titled The Victory Comes Slowly which it revolves around the dark and treacherous feeling of being in war. In a way, Deering himself was in a war with Miquel Urillo when Deering wanted to leave Sitges and his art collection to the United States. Since there was no special laws or clauses on protecting cultural artifacts in any country, Deering had some ease in transporting them to the Americas and selling most of his collection to the Chicago’s Art Institute.

Almost 100 years had passed since some of the art collection Deering took has been stored away from its original home in Sitges. The painting shown above had better fortune in being returned for only 48 years after. Even with Deering leaving the city and his manor, the reputation and glamour of the house and the symbol of Maricel’s sun and ocean crest has always remained within the manor and at his own estate in Miami, giving Maricel some recognition and victory. The paintings in Deering’s old garage that returned could also mean that slowly but surely, the same paintings that were once there could finally come back to Maricel over time. The victory approaches slowly, and I hope Maricel will regain what was lost to them and be reigned as champion from Deering’s neglect.

XC: Montserrat as Text:

Lovebirds in Montserrat Mountains (Credit: John W. Bailly) 06/25/19

“Enjoy the View” by Daniella Stalingovskis of FIU at Montserrat, Spain

After hiking in other cities in Spain such as Segovia, Toledo, and El Escorial, I was excited but dreadful for the anticipated hike in Montserrat. The unique, jagged, and pointy mountain tops and the view looked intimidating but beautiful at the same time. Many flights of stairs and trails later, we looked at the scenery and the view of the serrated mountains where legend says that the mountains were sawed off or serrated by angels themselves. Unlike being in the cities, there was no crowds of people storming off and bumping elbows, just the breeze blowing on our faces and the birds chirping their songs. All the serene and peaceful aspects of Montserrat made me realize why a monastery was built in this location. An isolated city filled with greenery and flora to help contemplate and reflect about one’s journey or path in their walks of life. I pondered about how other historical figures made their journey to visit the city such as Christopher Columbus, King Fernando and Queen Isabella and how I am possibly walking along the same path as they once did. The serrated mountains made me feel puny and insignificant in a way, but then I noticed how significant it truly is that we small humans can create big changes in our world. Our history has been chaotic with wars, genocides, debates, and corruption looming around every country, city, or border. We tiny humans as a society will turn ripples into waves of either peace and acceptance or chaos and destruction. My day in Montserrat helped me silence the disorienting world full of flaws and enabled me to live in the moment and enjoy the view as I reflect upon myself and my life so far.  

Ida: Spain’s Fashion to the Americas by Daniella Stalingovskis

Introduction:

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Juan Mauricio Rugendas, Tapada. New York, The Hispanic Society of America.

In this project, the main focus will be pertaining to Spain’s influence within the fashion realm and what has the Americas borrowed from them in this transatlantic dynamic dialogue. We will examine the brief history and impact of Spain’s influence and power throughout different eras ranging from the Moors dominating Spain, during 1492 where the Catholics defeated the Moors and exiled them, and after the Age of Conquests where the New World was discovered by Christopher Columbus and conquered during that time. While examining fashion trends and habits, we will also expand on societal roles in Spain and its changes and similarities when compared to the Americas, particularly to women and the natives. This project will also examine how Spain has had their fair share of the fashion industry in the global market in the current period. The project revolves around various cultures and religious impacts towards Spain and the influence towards the Americas and how those differing choices of styles and accessories benefited the population in the New World whether it be the Islamic tapadas or the Catholic guardainfante dresses. It is difficult to ignore the diverse mix of cultures and religions that developed Spain’s history and its influence towards the Americas.

Pre-1492:

The Moorish Empire in Spain:

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An 8th Century Moorish Castle in Gibraltar
Source:
http://gibraltar.gi/tourism/?language=en&category=1&item=31

Before the Catholic monarchy dominated Spain and exiled the Jewish and Muslim population, the country was ruled by the Moors from 711 A.D to 1492. The Moors were a general population of people who were of northern African descent and predominantly of Muslim faith. They were led by general Tariq bin Ziyad and defeated the Visigoths by crossing from North Africa to Gibraltar and continued to dominate the majority of Spain until the fall of Granada in 1492.

Society During Moorish Rule:

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Ernst, Rudolf. Nach dem Beten (After Prayers), oil on hardboard, 92.7 × 73 cm, London, Mathaf Gallery

The Moorish society at the beginning was seen as more tolerant than other periods of conquests and domination periods. It was depicted diverse with Muslims, Christians, and Jews having similar rights, but the Christians and the Jews had more restrictive policies than the Muslims did and were seen as second-class citizens. Even though the non-Muslim citizens had the right to follow their beliefs and were not forced to convert, they had to declare that Islamic influence and power is superior, avoid converting Muslim citizens, and had restrictions when attempting to build their churches or synagogues. The true dynamic between citizens with differing religions in Moorish Spain is still debated by historians with some saying that the Muslims showed contempt to non-Muslims and some saying the non-Muslims were treated as the bottom of the social hierarchy. Nonetheless, the Jews and Christians were not persecuted nor forced into slavery for their differing beliefs. Some reasons as to why the non-Muslims were mostly tolerated was because Christianity and Judaism are monotheistic like Islam and the number of Christians outnumbered the population of Muslims so converting them would be risky and expensive to accomplish. However, around the 11th century, the Muslim rule became more repressive towards non-Muslims and tensions became stronger which led to the Muslim reign to decline and Christian rulers reclaiming some land from the Moors. In addition, the Muslim rulers of the kingdom were divisive with one another, enabling the Christian rulers to shatter the kingdom and conquer Spain once more.

Women in Moorish Spain:

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Rosati, Giulio. Picking the Favourite. 1880

Similar to the non-Muslims in Moorish Spain, women were also generally seen as second-class citizens but also had some rights and privileges. However, women did not have as much freedoms compared to a Muslim man, but a Muslim woman was depicted to have more freedoms than a Christian or Jewish man. Some freedoms that a woman can obtain in Islamic Spain was protections from violence and theft, the ability to purchase or sell goods as well as owning or inheriting property and being able to seek employment. Some of the more repressive laws against women were that husbands could domestically abuse their wives, limited rights to inheritance, and only men could initiate the divorce process had more leverage in court than women did. Another common restriction that is noticeable in both Islamic and Christian Spain is the restriction of women wearing certain dresses and accessories since there were high expectations of modesty. In many cases, the freedoms of women could be heightened through marriage. A current wife could prevent a husband from having a second wife or a concubine despite polygamy being allowed in traditional Islamic law. Although discouraged, a Christian or Jewish woman could rise on the social hierarchy ladder by marrying a Muslim man and can earn more rights than a non-Muslim would. The idea of tolerating interfaith marriage was a stark contrast of the previous kingdom’s policies from the Visigoths where interfaith marriage would result with the man being executed and half of the woman’s property would be confiscated. There is a nuance concerning women’s rights during the Moorish period as it was a mix of some freedoms and repressions for them, but they were still seen as inferior to their male counterparts and were not seen as equals during this period due to the very apparent restrictions.

Tapadas:

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Fierro, Pancho. Going to Church. (between 1850-60). Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes

In Moorish fashion, women would wear veils on their faces called the tapado. The term translates to English as the covered one which correlates as to how the accessory was used during that time. The veiling accessory was popular among Muslim women and eventually adopted by Christian women and wore them both in Spain and the Americas during the 16th and 17th century. However, the men and policymakers did not like the women partaking in wearing the tapado. The tapado gave women many freedoms in the city such as having anonymity and having their social status hidden. Between 1586 to 1639 there were multiple laws passed to restrict the use of the veils in the name of Christianity. To the legislators of Spain, most notably Cortes de Castilla in 1586, petitioned to King Philip II saying that they perceived the tapadas as an offense to God since women had the freedom of anonymity, that men could not recognize the women and approach them for their exoticism and alluring mysterious presence and even accusing men of wearing tapados themselves to perform sinful acts. The monarchy imposed these laws but saw no significant change in Madrid, Seville, or in Lima. This controversy allowed artists and writers to depict and reinforce the idea and theme that veiled women were seductive and mysterious during the late 16th century. In Peru, tapadas were well known in Lima since many of the converted Moors and Muslims would flee there as their new home. These women in Lima were known as Las Tapadas Limeñas and these veils were seen more as a rebellion to allow women the freedom to wear what they want and continued to do so despite policies attempting to forbid them of wearing them.

Tocas de Camino:


Fernando Gallego. (1490?), The Tucson Museum of Art, Arizona, USA
Mor, Anthonis. Lady with the Jewel.1552 Mueso De Nacional Del Prado, Madrid

Also known as the alhareme and the more common term toque, the Tocas de camino were a specific style of headdress that is known to be similar as a turban in Moorish Spain. It was also adopted by the Christians in the mid-15th century and was considered as a national headdress since it was popular in the early 17th century. In Spain, it would be worn by essentially any social ranking. However, in the New World, it was also commonly worn but for a different purpose. The Spanish rulers wanted to provide an alluring, exotic, and distinguished idea of Iberian fashion to spread the European image and accomplished this by gathering articles of clothing that described at the time of Iberian fashion. Since the toca was so commonly worn, it was included with the image of an Iberian person. Then, the accessory was served to distinguish the noble Spaniards from the lower classes and natives. The toca has also evolved over time with thinner fabrics and covering the very back of the head and extended through the neck and chest while being adorned with jewels.

Chopines, Chapines, and the Guatemalan Chapíns:

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Chapines, Christoph Weiditz, Tractenbuch von 1529, f. 23. Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nurnberg.

The Moors had developed the origins of a high-platformed heel called the chapine which is now currently known as the chopine shoe. These types of shoes were very popular in both Spain and in Venice. They created the shoes either out of cork or from wood and served various purposes. The peasants would wear these to keep women elevated from getting their feet wet from dirt and mud. On the other hand, the upper-class women would wear these shoes to flaunt and establish their wealth and had more luxurious versions of these shoes. The shoes then went out of style around the 1730s due the modern heel being established that society uses today. However, one could assume that a more modern type of the chopine is back in the fashion market. It has seen a resurgence in the Americas and all around the world since the 1990s and has been somewhat popular in the modern market and sells them in the form of either sneakers or open-toed sandals or heels in the name of high-top platform shoes. In Guatemala, the people that live there nowadays call themselves a chapín. This term originated because of the Spaniards that immigrated from Spain and settled there. They would point out the clunky shoes and the non-Guatemalan people would use this term originally as an insult regarding as someone who is not noble and pretended as if they were. However, the term’s meaning shifted when Guatemala gained independence in 1821 and use it as a prideful term to describe the Guatemalan population.

The Golden Age of Conquests:

The Rise and Fall of Fashion Influence in Catholic Spain:

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Anguissola, Sofonisba. 1561-1565.
Elisabeth of Valois holding a Portrait of Philip II. Museo Nacional Del Prado, Madrid

In 1492, it was a pivotal year for Spain due to the Catholics conquering from the previous Moorish empire and Christopher Columbus’s discovery of the New World. These events had led the Catholic monarchy a drastic increase in power, wealth, luxury, and influence in the fashion sphere. Due to multiple resources that the Americas offered such as gold, jewels, log wood (Haematoxylum campechianum), the Spanish dominated in fashion with their black, green, or red farthingales embroidered with golden or silver trimmings and stunning pearls and rubies. Whether it be in the Royal Court or in the Americas, the nobles and elite would wear the extravagant outfits to flaunt their upper-class status and reinforce the European culture to the natives no matter how time-consuming and uncomfortable some of the outfits were. Spain had spread their popular styles in France, England, Holland, and Austria where they borrowed and incorporated the same styles. It was until the mid-17th century when Spain lost its popularity and France took the lead in fashion.

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Velazquez, Diego. 1659.
Infanta Margarita Teresa in a Blue Dress. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Related image
Goya, Francisco. 1746.
Queen María Luisa in a Dress with hooped Skirt. Museo Nacional Del Prado, Madrid

Farthingales and the Guardainfante Controversy:

The origins of the Spanish farthingale dress began with the verdugo which appeared in 1470 which involved rigid hoops to make the skirts in the dresses stick out in a cone or bell shape by having a small hoop just below the waist and then larger hoops further down the dress. Then in the 16th and 17th century, it evolved into a type of farthingale called the guardainfante. This dress had a wider skirt and gave more of a prominent bell shape from the waist down. It sparked controversy because the dress’s reputation of being worn to hide illegitimate pregnancies, despite no consistent data proving the accusation. Another reason why it was criticized was because men thought women wore the dresses to challenge their authority since it gave women more personal space and they accused women of hiding items underneath the large skirts. It was declared banned to every woman but prostitutes in 1639 by King Phillip IV. However, the ban did not succeed in censoring the outfits because the dresses were still being worn in the royal families. The dress was also popular in Portugal and Latin America, specifically in Mexico where the women thought the dress was very elegant. The guardainfante dwindled in popularity around the world at the end of the 18th century but the Spanish were stubborn in losing the tradition and continued to wear an evolved version called the tontillo, also known as the pannier.

Gauchos, Vaqueros, and the Cowboys:

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Corpany, Kim. 2010.
Board Meeting Cowboy Painting
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Borein, Edward. 1920. Vaquero.
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Bouchet, Jose. 2014. A Gaucho

The gaucho, vaquero, and modern cowboy outfits differ from each other but has the same origins in 12th century Spain where cattle herders wore vests, spurred boots, and tight trousers. The three variations of the costume are different because it was a form of adaptation to their varying environments. In the gaucho outfit, their most recognizable features are the calzoncillos, which are breeches, and the Chiripá which are baggy pants worn over the calzoncillos. The gauchos who lived in Argentina and Chile wore ponchos to protect themselves from the Andes Mountain’s weather conditions. They also wear coin decorated belt buckles called the cinturones. The vaqueros in Mexico is considered to be the direct ancestor of the American cowboy. They kept the spurred boots, the sombrero, and bolero jacket like their Spanish origin, but they differ because they wore armas and chaparjos which were cowhide slabs that served as protective gear from the thorny bushes in the Americas. The modern cowboy that has the most well-known outfit usually wears Stetson hats, denim jeans, fancy embellished belt buckles, and high-heeled boots. These outfits vary throughout the New World due to differing environmental changes, but it traces all the way back to the cattle herders in Spain.

Mantillas and the Peineta vs. Peinetón

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Cesar Hipolito Bacle. 1834. Museo de Arte Hispanoamericano. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
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Miller E.,Richard. 1910. Black Mantilla

In 1721, a traditional shawl made from silk with floral motifs called the mantilla had risen in popularity in Spain and in Mexico. These were seen as family heirlooms as they were commonly passed down from older generations. They would also be accompanied with a Spanish comb called the peineta would also be seen alongside with the flamenco dress style with the shawl’s variation,
mantón de manila. The depiction of women wearing mantillas while listening to their lovers playing guitar had spread from Spain to Mexico and the Philippines. The mantilla used to be worn by upper-class women but then lost their popularity and only lower-class women, gypsies and flamenco dresses wore them. Referring back to the Spanish comb named the peineta, it was challenged by the Argentine women from the postcolonial movement. They would wear a 3 ft by 3 ft comb on their heads called the peinetón to assert Argentine presence to distance themselves from Spanish authority and for female independence. It was a short-lived fashion accessory only spanning from 1832 to 1836.

Social Roles and Las Castas:

Women’s Roles in Spain:


Velázquez , Diego. 1635-1643. The Needlewoman. National Art Gallery, Washington D.C.
Link:
https://www.nga.gov/features/slideshows/spanish-painting-in-the-seventeenth-century.html#slide_6

Similar to the Moorish period, women in Catholic Spain also were seen as inferior to men and had multiple restrictions compared to their male counterparts. During the 16th and 17th century, women in Spain were not allowed to learn how to write nor were they able to participate in the professional workforce. Most were expected to be either a homemaker or a nun. To run a business or gain more privileges, a woman would have to be a widow to inherit certain businesses and properties but the inheritance would still be restrictive. The common theme of women’s education was preparing for marriage and the responsibilities of being married with a potential family. They were excluded from professional institutions and their opinions were discredited. For the most part, women were seen as a fragile being that needed protection, irrational, and physically and morally weaker than men. They also perceived feminine sexuality as dangerous because they thought it gave men “temptations” to commit sinful acts. There are also many common themes of restrictions of clothing and the freedoms those pieces of attire provided.

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Ortega, Jose. 1897. Inés de Suárez

Women’s Roles in the Americas:

When the New World was discovered in 1492, there was a sizable number of Spaniards that decided to emigrate to the new location. From data collected of emigrants from 1493 to 1600, there was a total of 54,881 men and only 10,118 women who moved to the New World. The reason why the number of women was less than the amount of men was because single women who were not married was much less likely to receive authorization to travel unless she was married to her husband in New Spain. Another method for single women to travel to the New World was for them to be a servant for another traveler. Some reasons as to why women would migrate to the Americas was a better social system due to them having more power in commerce and crafting, being the top of the new hierarchy as a European in the New World, and not having to do many of the household chores such as weaving and cooking since the Natives were used as servants at the time. Some Spanish women also helped alleviate burdens for the militia in the Americas by doing various chores for them such as washing clothes, caring the injured, and sometimes had to defend themselves when the men were away from the garrisons. Some examples of women who fought alongside with the conquistadors were Doña Isabel de Guevara of Argentina and Doña Inez Suarez of Chile. In the households, the Spanish wife would serve as the foundation of preserving the Spanish European traditions and culture in the family. The wives would also try to maintain cultural standards such as speaking only in Spanish, sewing and embroidering in European designs and celebrating Catholicism. In modern Latin America, many middle-class and upper-class households have domesticated servants to do the house chores and sometimes take care of the kids when the parents are working. In some cases, the servants have their own small private room in the same house, so they can do the chores in a timely matter and quick access. The typical domestic servant would come from a lower-class background as similar to the past when Spain ruled the New World.

Las Castas:


Las Castas. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato,Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
de Mena, Luis. Virgin of Guadalupe and Castas (1750) Museo de America, Madrid.

When the Spaniards started to settle to the New World, there would be a mix of people from different heritages due to the Spaniards breeding with the Native population and the African slaves. Because of this, the European colonists would call the mixed children as castas, an Iberian word meaning “lineage”. The term was commonly used in the Americas during the 17th and 18th century to identify the mixed population. In the New World, the Spanish elites created a social system of classes based on race called Las Castas. The origins of this system started in Spain after the Christians took over from the Moors and would examine the blood purity and lineage of their citizens since they did not want people to live in Latin America if they were considered tainted of Moorish or Jewish blood. The four original categories for races would be the Peninsular, Criollo/a, Indio/a, and the Negro/a. Each racial category was given a set of rights and privileges. The peninsular was a Spanish person born from Europe and they were considered the elites of the social hierarchy. Criollos and Criollas were those of Spanish blood but born in the New World. They essentially had almost the same privileges as the peninsular class but were sometimes seen as inferior to them. Indios and Indias were the Natives living in the New World and the Negros and Negras were African slaves sent for forced labor. Other common racial categories were Mestizos, Castizos, Cholos, Mulattos, and Zambos. The Mestizos were a mix of a Spanish and Indian parent, Castizos had a Spanish and Mestizo parent, Cholos were from an Indian and Mestizo parent, Mulattos descended from Spanish and African parents, and Zambos were from their Indian and African parents. There were much more combinations and categories for more complex mixes with common paintings from the 18th century usually reinforcing about 16 categories. These meticulous methods of determining the race of a person would determine their entire lifestyle and socioeconomic standing. The mindset of European superiority has been a common theme throughout the history of colonialism, even with the United States’ history of treating the natives and the African slaves poorly due to their race.

Modern Era:

The Modern Spanish Industries:

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Created by: Tim Van de velde

Despite the history of Spain’s rise and fall in wealth, power, and even in fashion dominance, Spain currently has a good share within the fashion industry with its mass retailers such as ZARA, Mango, and Desigual stores taking over in North and South America. According to the data in 2015, most of Spain’s fashion companies receives their revenue primarily from the global markets with Inditex (owner of Zara, Stradivarius, etc.) making 82.3% of their sales from international markets, MANGO earning 83%, and Desigual making 77% of sales around the world. These leading brands also display their dominant presence around the globe with Inditex having at least one store in 88 countries with 7,013 stores in total and MANGO with 2,700 stores located in 107 countries.

Zara’s Legacy:

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Zara is one of the most well-known Spanish retailers in the fashion market. The company strives to offer trendy clothing with affordable prices to their consumers. The founder, Amancio Ortega, revolutionized the fashion industry during the 1980s in terms of designing, delivering, and developing the fashion collections in a more time-efficient manner. Zara abandoned the traditional method of presenting a new collection since it was time consuming with an average time of six to nine months until another collection would be replaced. To analyze the issue, Inditex would consult with the regional managers about consumer demands and predictions and they found that about 50% of the products were relatively nearby the stores. This discovery allowed the company to manufacture and deliver the new clothing in about three to five weeks which was a drastic time-efficient change. They also decided to reduce the amount of waste by choosing fabrics in only four colors and planned to dye and print on the clothing only if it was near the factories. The result allowed Zara to design and sell 20,000 different products which is a significant increase compared to their competitors only designing around 1,000 to 2,000 products. It is both a cost and time efficient model in the fashion design industry and is applied in numerous other fashion companies currently.

References:

Pre-1492:

  1. Bass, Laura R., and Amanda Wunder. “The Veiled Ladies of the Early Modern Spanish World: Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima.” Hispanic Review, vol. 77, no. 1, Winter 2009, pp. 97–144. EBSCOhost, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=37835327&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
  2. BBC Staff. “Religions – Islam: Muslim Spain (711-1492).” BBC Religions: Islam, BBC, 4 Sept. 2009, www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/spain_1.shtml.
  3. Bennett, Chris. “Gibraltar Website.” Gibraltar Website Gibraltar.gi, Gibraltar Tourism, 2006, gibraltar.gi/tourism/?language=en&category=1&item=31.
  4. Dawson, Daniel. “Women under the Law in Islamic Spain, 700s–1492.” Women under the Law in Islamic Spain, 700s–1492 – Armstrong Undergraduate Journal of History, Virginia Commonwealth University, Nov. 2015, www.armstrong.edu/history-journal/history-journal-women-under-the-law-in-islamic-spain-700s-1492.
  5. Eddegdag, Ismail. “They Cover Everything But One Eye: Meet Las Tapadas Limenas, Mysterious Muslim Women in Peru.” Mvslim, Mvslim, 29 Jan. 2017, mvslim.com/las-tapadas-limenas-mysterious-muslim-women-in-peru/.
  6. Fuchs, Barbara. Exotic Nation. University of Pennsylvania Press, Inc., 2009.
  7. Kwei, Ivon. “Origen De La Palabra ‘Chapín.’” Aprende Guatemala.com, Guatemala.com, 13 July 2017, aprende.guatemala.com/cultura-guatemalteca/general/origen-palabra-chapin/.
  8. Oatman-Stanford, Hunter. “These Chopines Weren’t Made for Walking: Precarious Platforms for Aristocratic Feet.” Collectors Weekly, Auctions Online USA, 17 Apr. 2014, www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/these-chopines-werent-made-for-walking/.
  9. Ta Neter Foundation Staff. “The ‘Moors’ of Europe.” The Moors: Moor Etymology, Moors Truth, Real Moors, Moor Origins, Moorish History, True Moors, Africans in Europe, Ta Neter Foundation, 2014, www.taneter.org/moors.html.

The Golden Age of Conquests:

  1. Brassac, Esther. History of Women’s Costumes during the Renaissance, Art Création Décoration, 4 Oct. 2013, www.art-estherbrassac.com/anglais/themes_a/cloth_r1.html.
  2. Boucher François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. H.N. Abrams, 1987.
  3. de Lorenzo, Victoria. “Spanish Fashion in the Golden Age ( La Moda Española En El Siglo de Oro ), Museo de Santa Cruz, Toledo, Spain, March 26‒June 14, 2015.” Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, vol. 20, no. 5, Nov. 2016, pp. 575–588. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/1362704X.2016.1156387.
  4. Karl, Barbra. “Early Modern European Court Fashion Goes Global: Embroidered Spanish Capes from Bengal.” Ars Orientalis, Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, 2017, quod.lib.umich.edu/a/ars/13441566.0047.004/–early-modern-european-court-fashion-goes-global-embroidered?rgn=main;view#N4-ptr1.
  5. Pendergast, Sara, and Tom Pendergast. Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. Edited by Sarah Hermsen, vol. 3, UXL, 2013.
  6. Steele, Valerie. Encyclopedia of Fashion And Culture. Vol. 1-3, Thomson Gale, 2005
  7. Thepaut-Cabasset, Corinne. “Dressing the New World.” Dressing the New World, Hypotheses, Jan. 2016, dressworld.hypotheses.org/.
  8. Tortora, Phyllis. “Europe and America: History of Dress (400-1900 C.E.).” LoveToKnow, LoveToKnow Corp, fashion-history.lovetoknow.com/fashion-history-eras/europe-america-history-dress-400-1900-c-e.
  9. Wunder, Amanda. “Women’s Fashions and Politics in Seventeenth-Century Spain: The Rise and Fall of the Guardainfante.” Renaissance Quarterly, vol. 68, no. 1, Spring 2015, pp. 133–186. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1086/681310.

Social Roles and Las Castas:

  1. Antolini, Paola. 1492: The Role of Women. Commission of the European Communities: Women’s Information Service, 1993.
  2. Deans-Smith, Susan. “Casta Paintings.” Not Even Past, Not Even Past Organization, 29 June 2018, notevenpast.org/casta-paintings/.
  3. Estes, Roberta. “Las Castas – Spanish Racial Classifications.” Native Heritage Project, Native Heritage Project WordPress, 15 June 2013, nativeheritageproject.com/2013/06/15/las-castas-spanish-racial-classifications/.
  4. Jelin, Elizabeth. “Migration and Labor Force Participation of Latin American Women: The Domestic Servants in the Cities.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 3, no. 1, 1977, pp. 129–141., doi:10.1086/493446.
  5. Mcewan, Bonnie G. “The Archaeology of Women in the Spanish New World.” Historical Archaeology, vol. 25, no. 4, 1991, pp. 33–41., doi:10.1007/bf03373522.
  6.  Soong, Roland. “Racial Classifications in Latin America.” Racial Classifications in Latin America, Zona Latina, 15 Aug. 1999, www.zonalatina.com/Zldata55.htm.
  7.  “World Art.” Annenberg Learner, Annenberg Learner, 2017, www.learner.org/courses/globalart/work/85/.

Modern Era:

  1. Bejarano, Leticia, et al. “Analysis of the Spanish Fashion Industry – Máster Carlos III MaDI.” Máster En Dirección Internacional De Empresas, Be International, 1 June 2017, madi.uc3m.es/en/international-research-en/markets-and-industries-en/spanish-fashion-industry/. 
  2. Steve Maiden, et al. “How Zara Turned ‘Chic Cheap’ into a Global Fashion Revolution.” Washington Post, The, 2017 Sept. 6AD. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bwh&AN=wapo.48e00a08-4a14-11e7-9669-250d0b15f83b&site=ehost-live&scope=site.